The following terms are commonly used in OSHA Compliance. The inclusion of any term, however, does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by DoctorsManagement or any of its subsidiaries or employees.

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Administrative Controls are controls that alter the way the work is done, including timing of work, policies and other rules, and work practices such as standards and operating procedures (including training, housekeeping, equipment maintenance, and personal hygiene practices).

Airborne Pathogens are infectious agents that are spread through small infectious particles such as droplet nuclei.

Bloodborne Pathogens means pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Chemical Hygiene Plan means a written program developed and implemented by the employer that sets forth procedures, equipment, personal protective equipment and work practices that (i) are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals used in that particular workplace and (ii) meets the requirements of paragraph (e) of the Chemical Hygiene Plan within the Hazard Communication Standard. This is usually applicable only in free-standing laboratories.

Consumer Products are cleaning, medical and office products that are also often used in the home. A substance is considered a consumer product if it is 1) defined as such under the Consumer Products Safety Act, 2) used in the workplace as intended by the manufacturer, and 3) used with the same frequency and duration of exposure expected of a typical consumer. The Compliance Safety and Health Officer must consider whether use of consumer products in the workplace greatly exceeds normal conditions of use or if the use is different than originally intended for the product.

Contaminated Laundry means laundry that has been soiled with blood or other potentially infectious materials or may contain sharps.

Contaminated Sharps means any contaminated object that can penetrate the skin including, but not limited to, needles, scalpels, broken glass, broken capillary tubes, and exposed ends of dental wires.

Employer means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce who has employees.

Employee means an employee of an employer who is employed in a business of his employer that affects commerce.

Energy Source is any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.

Engineering Controls include designs or modifications to plants, equipment, ventilation systems, and processes that reduce the source of exposure (e.g., sharps disposal containers, self-sheathing needles, safer medical devices such as sharps with engineered sharps injury protections and needleless systems) and that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogens hazard from the workplace.  Other examples include process control, enclosure and/or isolation of hazards, and ventilation.

Ergonomics is the science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population.

Exposure Incident means a specific eye, mouth, or other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employee’s duties.

Fire Brigade (private fire department, industrial fire department) means an organized group of employees who are knowledgeable, trained, and skilled in at least basic fire fighting operations.

Fire Brigade Training means the process of making one proficient through instruction and hands-on practice in the operation of equipment, including respiratory protection equipment, that is expected to be used in the performance of assigned duties.

General Duty Clause

(a) Each employer

(1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free

from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to

his employees;

(2) shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act.

(b) Each employee shall comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules, regulations, and orders issued pursuant to this Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct.

Hazard is a situation in a place of employment with the potential of causing illness or injury to employees that poses a level of threat to health or safety.

Hazard Category is the division of criteria within each hazard class, e.g., oral acute toxicity and flammable liquids include four hazard categories.

Hazard Classification is used to identify the relevant data regarding the hazards of a chemical, review those data to ascertain the hazards associated with the chemical, and decide whether the chemical will be classified as hazardous according to the definition of hazardous chemical in the new standard.

Hazard Control is a way to protect workers from exposure to a substance or system. Examples include elimination, substitution, work practices, personal protective equipment, and engineered controls.

Hazardous Chemical means any chemical which is a physical hazard or a health hazard. Hazardous chemical means a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term “health hazard” includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.

Hazard Statement means a statement assigned to a hazard class and category that describes the nature of the hazard(s) of a chemical, including, where appropriate, the degree of hazard.

Hazard Warning means any words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof appearing on a label or other appropriate form of warning which convey the specific physical and health hazard(s), including target organ effects of the chemical(s) in the container(s). (See the definitions for “physical hazard” and “health hazard” to determine the hazards which must be covered.)

Health Hazard means a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term “health hazard” includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.

I2P2 (Injury and Illness Prevention Program) is OSHA’s plans to improve its effectiveness by looking at successful companies and encouraging all employers to initiate and maintain a safety and health program with systematic policies, procedures, and practices to recognize hazards and protect employees from occupational safety and health hazards.

Identity means any chemical or common name which is indicated on the material safety data sheet (SDS) for the chemical. The identity used shall permit cross-references to be made among the required list of hazardous chemicals, the label and the SDS.

Independent Contractors are companies that provide a service, such as radiology or housekeeping, to host employers. They provide supervisory personnel, as well as rank-and-file workers, to carry out the service. These companies and the host employers are responsible for complying with all provisions of the standard in accordance with the multi-employer worksite guidelines of CPL 2-0.124, Multi-Employer Citation Policy.

Immediate Use means that the hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.

Ionizing Radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, X-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other atomic particles; but such term does not include sound or radio waves, or visible light, or infrared or ultraviolet light.

Label Elements are the specified pictogram, hazard statement, signal word and precautionary statement for each hazard class and category.

Laboratory means a facility where the “laboratory use of hazardous chemicals” occurs. It is a workplace where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a non-production basis.

Laboratory Scale means work with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other handling of those substances are designed to be easily and safety manipulated by one person. “Laboratory scale” excludes those workplaces whose function is to produce commercial quantities of materials.

Licensed Healthcare Professional is a person whose legally permitted scope of practice allows him or her to independently perform the activities required by paragraph (f) Hepatitis B Vaccination and Post-exposure Evaluation and Follow-up.

Lockout is the placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.

Medical Monitoring is testing a worker to determine if an exposure has occurred and if so, to what extent the employee has been harmed.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) means written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical which is prepared in accordance with the Hazard Communication Standard.

Non-ionizing Radiation is described as a series of energy waves composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields traveling at the speed of light. Non-ionizing radiation includes the spectrum of ultraviolet (UV), visible light, infrared (IR), microwave (MW), radio frequency (RF), and extremely low frequency (ELF).

Other Potentially Infectious Materials means (1) the following human body fluids: semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids; (2) any unfixed tissue or organ (other than intact skin) from a human (living or dead); and (3) HIV-containing cell or tissue cultures, organ cultures, and HIV- or HBV-containing culture medium or other solutions; and blood, organs, or other tissues from experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV.

Personal Protective Equipment is specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against a hazard. General work clothes (e.g., uniforms, pants, shirts or blouses) not intended to function as protection against a hazard are not considered to be personal protective equipment.

Physical Hazard means a chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive.

Pictogram means a composition that may include a symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern, or color, that is intended to convey specific information about the hazards of a chemical.  Eight pictograms are designated under this standard for application to a hazard category.

Precautionary Statement means a phrase that describes recommended measures that should be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to a hazardous chemical, or improper storage or handling.

Process Control involves changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk. Monitoring should be done before as well as after the change is implemented to make sure the changes did result in lower exposures.

Product Identifier is the name or number used for a hazardous chemical on a label or in the SDS. It provides a unique means by which the user can identify the chemical. 

Radiation (ionizing) includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, X-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other atomic particles; but such term does not include sound or radio waves, or visible light, or infrared or ultraviolet light.

Regulated Waste means liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials; contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed; items that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious materials and are capable of releasing these materials during handling; contaminated sharps; and pathological and microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious materials.

Safety Data Sheet (SDS) means written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical that is prepared in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section.

Self-employed refers to someone who works for himself/herself instead of an employer, but drawing income from a trade or business that they operate personally.

Sharps with Engineered Sharps Injury Protections (SESIPs) are defined as a non-needle sharp or a needle device used for withdrawing body fluids, accessing a vein or artery, or administering medications or other fluids, with a built-in safety feature or mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident.

Signal Word means a word used to indicate the relative level of severity of hazard and alert the reader to a potential hazard on the label. The signal words used in this section are “danger” and “warning.” “Danger” is used for the more severe hazards, while “warning” is used for the less severe.

Tagout Device is a prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment, which can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device in accordance with an established procedure to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.

Universal Precautions is an approach to infection control. According to the concept of Universal Precautions, all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if they are known to be infectious for the HIV, HBV, and HCV viruses and/or other bloodborne pathogens.

Work Practice Controls means controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed (e.g., prohibiting recapping of needles by a two-handed technique).

Work Area means a room or defined space in a workplace where hazardous chemicals are produced or used and where employees are present.

Workplace means an establishment, job site, or project at one geographical location containing one or more work areas.